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The Remington XP-100 was the first pistol of this type from a major manufacturer. The XP-100 was introduced in the early 1960's, based on the same short bolt action as the Remington Model 600 rifle, which came out a year after the XP-100. For many years, XP-100's were only chambered in .221 Fireball caliber. Naturally, many hunters privately re-barreled their XP-100's to calibers suitable for big game hunting, and eventually Remington saw the light and chambered their super accurate single shot pistol for a variety of high intensity short action rifle cartridges. Most XP-100's were supplied with 14 1/2 inch barrels, although other lengths are sometimes seen. Stocks were originally made from DuPont "Zytel" nylon, same as the famous Nylon 66 .22 rifle, but later walnut and laminated wood, as well as synthetic stocks, became available.
The success of the XP-100, and later the Contender, spawned numerous single shot hunting pistols from small manufacturers. Most of these were based on some sort of bolt action, but rolling block, rotating breech (like a cannon), falling block, and probably other types of actions, have been used. Almost all of them were or are chambered for a variety of cartridges, usually including short action rifle cartridges like the .308 Win. Almost none of these big single shot pistols will fit into any normal kind of holster; in the field they are usually carried on a sling, like a rifle.
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